PESTEL analysis of Indian capital market


The capital market of India is very vulnerable. India has been politically instable in the past but it is a little politically stable now-a-days.the political instability of the country has a very strong impact on the capital market. The share market of India changes as the political changes took place. The BSE Index, SENSEX goes up and down with any kind of small and big political news, like, if there is news that a particular political party has withdrawn its support from the ruling party, and then the capital market will go down with a bang. The capital market of India is too weak and is based on speculations. The political stability of the country is very important for the stability and growth of capital market in India. The political imbalance or balance of the country is the major factor in deciding the capital market of India. The political factors include:

  • employment laws
  • tax policy
  • trade restrictions and tariffs
  • political stability


The economical measures taken by the government of India has a very strong relationship with the capital market. Whenever the annual budget is announced the capital market goes up and down with the economical policies of the government .If the policies are supportive to the companies then the capital market takes it positively and if there is any other policy that is not supportive and it is not welcomed then the capital market goes down. Like, in the case of allocation of 3-G spectrum, those companies that got the license for 3-G, they witnessed sharp growth in their share values so the economic policies play a major part in the growth and decline of the capital market and again if there is relaxation on any kind of taxes on items of automobile industry then the share of automobile sector goes up and virtually strengthen the capital market .The economical factors include:

  • inflation rate
  • economic growth
  • exchange rates
  • interest rates


India is a country of unity in diversity .India is socially rich but the capital market is not very attached with the social factors .Yes, there is some relation between the social factors with the capital market. If there is any big social factor then to some extent it affects the capital market but small social factors don’t impact at all. Like, there was opposition of reliance fresh in many cities and many stores were closed. The share prices of the reliance fresh went down but the impact was on and individual firm there was not much impact on the capital market on a whole the social factors have not much of impact on the capital market in India. The social factors include:

  • emphasis on safety
  • career attitudes
  • population growth rate
  • age distribution
  • health consciousness


The technological factors have not that much effect on the capital market. India is technological backward country. Same as social factors, technological factor can have an effect on an individual form but it cannot have a big impact on a whole of capital market. The Bajaj got a patent on its dts-i technology, and launched it in its new bike but it does not effect on capital market. The technological change in India is always on a lower basis and it doesn’t effect on country as a whole. The technological factors include:

  • R&D activity
  • technology incentives
  • rate of technological change
  • automation


Initially The environmental factors don’t play a vital role in the capital market. But the time has changed and people are more eco-friendly. This is really bothering them that if any firm or industry is environment friendly or not. An increasing number of people, investors, corporate executives are paying importance to these facts, the capital markets still see the environment as a liability. They belie that it is of no use for their strategy. The environmental performance is even under-valued by the markets.


Legal factors play an important role in the development and sustain the capital market. Legal issues relating to any industry or firm decides the fate of the capital market. If the govt. of India or the parliament introduces a new law that can affect the running of the industry then the industry will be demotivated and this demonization will lead to the demonization of the investors and will result in the fall of capital market. Like after the Hardhat Mehta scam, new rules and regulations were introduced like PAN card was made necessary for trading, if any investor was investing too much money in a small firm, then the investors were questioned,etc. These regulations were meant to maintain transparency in the capital market, but at that time, investment was discouraged. Legal factors are necessary for the improvement and stability of the capital market.

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