The basic technology of the data organization is based on a hierarchy. Data must be approached on an organized basis, if it is to be useful, in data processing, the hierarchy of data is described below:-
- A character is any simple number, alphabet or special symbol.
- A data record consists of a group of related data fields(e. g. Employee’s sequential record, customer record, etc.)
- A data field is an area that can hold one organization more characters that, together represents a specific data element(e. g. The name field, the quantity filed)
- A data file is a compilation of related data records maintained in some prearranged order.
- A database usually consists of several related organization integrated data files.
A file consists of a number of records. Each record is made up of a number of fields and each field consists of a number of characters. In order to produce useful information by means of computerized data processing, it is very necessary to organize data in systematic way. Methods of organizing data are referred to as data structures. The most important structure is a vertical hierarchy of data consisting of files, records, data items(or fields) and characters with characters encoded in terms of bits. It will be seen that at the top of the hierarchy is a file. When all records of the same record content are gathered as a single collection of information, the collection is referred to as file(or data set). The records in a file, in turn, are groupings of related data items or fields and then specific data values.… Read the rest