Information used in business can be either systematic or non-systematic. Our discussion is generally limited to information that flows through a formal system, but it is important to keep in mind the fact that a great deal of information reaches the manager from sources outside the formal system. Newspaper and other news media, conversations, and even a manager’s perception of a colleague’s facial expressions are important sources of information. Many managers give more-attention to such sources than to the formal reports.
Information can be external or Internal. Much information that is relevant to the manager flows into the organization form the outside environment.… Read the rest