Important reasons for the growth of merchant banks has been development activities throughout the country, exerting excess demand on the sources of fund for ever expanding industries and trade, thus leaving a widening gap unabridged between the supply and demand of invisible funds. All financial institutions had experienced constrain of resources to meet ever increasing demands for demands for funds frame corporate sector enterprises. In such circumstances corporate sector had the only alternative to avail of the capital market service for meeting their long term financial requirement through capital issue of equity shares and debentures. Growing demand for funds put pressure on capital market that enthused commercial banks, share brokers and financial consultancy firms to enter into the field of merchant banking and share the growing capital market. As a result all the commercial banks in nationalized and public sector as well as in private sector including foreign banks in India have opened their merchant banking windows and competing in this field.
Need for merchant banking is felt in the wake of huge public saving lying untapped. Merchant banker can play highly significant role in mobilizing funds of savers to invisible channels assuring promising returns on investment and thus can assist in meeting the widening demand for invisible funds for economic activity. With growth of merchant banking profession corporate enterprises in both private sectors would be able to raise required amount of funds annually from the capital market to meet the growing requirement for funds for establishing new enterprises, undertaking expansion, modernization and diversification of the existing enterprises. This reinforces the need for a vigorous role to be played by merchant banking.
In view of multitude of enactment, rules and regulation, gridlines and offshoot press release instructions brought out the government from time to time imposing statutory obligations upon the corporate sector to comply with those entire requirement prescribed there in the need of a skilled agency existed which could provide counseling in these matters in a package form. A merchant banker with their skills updated information and knowledge provide this service to the corporate units and advice them on such requirement to be complied with for raising funds from the capital market under different enactment viz. companies act, income tax act, foreign exchange regulation act, securities contracts corporate laws and regulations. Merchant bank advice the investors of the incentives available in the form of tax relief, other statutory relaxation, good return on investment and capital appreciation in such investment to motivate them to invest their savings securities of the corporate sector. Thus merchant banks help industries and trade to rise and the investors to invest their saved money in sound and healthy concern with confidence, safety and expectation for higher yields. Finance is the backbone of business activities. Merchant banker make available finance for business enterprises acting as intermediaries between them raising demand for funds and the supplies of funds besides rendering various other services.
The following are some of the reasons why specialist merchant bank have a crucial role to play in India.
- Growing complexity in rules and procedures of the government.
- Growing industrialization and increase of technologically advanced industries.
- Need for encouragement of small and medium industrialists, who require specialist services.
- Need to develop backward areas and states which require different criteria.
- Exploring the possibility of joint ventures abroad and foreign market.
- Promoting the role of new issue market in mobilizing saving from.
Where merchant banks function as an independent wing or as subsidiary of various private/central governments/ state government financial institution. Most of the financial institution in India is in public sector and therefore such setup plays a role on the lines of governmental priorities and policies.