# Inductive and Deductive Research Approach

## Inductive Research Approach

Induction is concerned with first obtaining data, discovering the truth and establishing relationships regarding the particular cases concerned. If these are found correct and operating, these are generalized  Induction lays stress on establishment of the material truth of matters pertaining to the universe or population based on sample observations. In mathematics, the proof for the Binomial Theorem is based on induction method. A study of, say, a dozen, randomly chosen family run businesses reveals that the decision-making process is centralized and less transparent. And, it may be concluded that decision process is centralized and less transparent in the case of family-run businesses. Induction involves, moving-to the ‘unobserved’ many from the ‘observed’ few.

There are a few types of induction. Perfect induction and intuitive induction are these. Perfect induction involves establishing a universal proposition by an exhaustive enumeration of all the instances of the category covered by the proposition. But, by the yardstick of, ‘moving to the ‘unobserved’ from the ‘observed’, perfect induction is not induction at all, as everything is observed and there is no need to move to the ‘unobserved’. But a point is to be kept in mind. What is observed are individual entities and what is concluded is about the ‘collective whole’ or the ‘totality’. Therefore, there is a definite more from ‘observed’ to ‘unobserved’.

## Deductive Research Approach

All humans are mortal. A universal truth. Smith is a human. So, Smith is mortal. This, deduction involves, moving from general to particular. Members of upper-occupational strata experience less unhappiness and worry and are subject to more formal controls than members of lower strata. This is a principle. It is deducted from the principle that: there would be more happiness in the wealthy families than in the poor families.

Deduction method helps to formulate happiness as is referred to above by extending a scenario into an analogous scenario. To test the hypothesis so formed, induction method may be adopted. Hence, both deduction and induction are used in research. Deduction is concerned with what is the material truth of the premises. It does not go beyond that premises. Conclusions based on deduction are more certain, than in the case of induction.