Absenteeism is habitual or pattern of absence from the duty. Absenteeism is viewed as indicator of poor individual performance, or poor employee morale.
Its found that rate of absenteeism is lowest on pay day it increase considerably the days following payment of wages. Absenteeism is generally higher in young workers below the age of 25 to 28. The young employees spend more of their time with family and friends. Percent of absenteeism is high in night shift as compared to day shift.
There are two types of absenteeism which are as follows:
- Innocent absenteeism: Innocent absenteeism refers refer to employees who are absent for reason beyond their control, like sickness and injury.
- Culpable absenteeism: Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For example if an employee is on sick leave even though he or she is not sick and if it is proved it is culpable absenteeism.
Causes of Absenteeism
- Maladjustment with factory: In factory worker find themselves caught within the factory wall which result into stress and finally into absenteeism.
- Unhealthy working condition: Irritable working conditions like heat, house, bad lighting, uncomfortable sitting, dust fumes etc lead to absenteeism.
- Lack of welfare activity: Like clean drinking water, canteen, rest room, medical room, wash room etc.
- Alcoholism: Some of the regular drunkards speed their whole salary in the first week for drinking purpose. Therefore 2 or 3 weeks after getting their salary, they absent themselves from their work.
- Personal problem: If the person is facing some personal problem, he or she not able to concentrate on their work. For example, women face problem in allocating their time between family and workplace leads to absenteeism
- Work pressure: If employee is facing high workload, it would create stress and pressure.
Effects of Absenteeism
Absenteeism cause harmful to both the employers and the workers for the following reasons;
- Normal work — flow in the factory is disturbed.
- Overall production in the factory goes down.
- Difficulty is faced in executing the orders in time.
- Casual workers may have to be employed to meet production schedules. Such workers are not trained properly.
- Overtime allowance bill increases considerably because of higher absenteeism.
- When a number of workers absent themselves there is extra pressure of work on their colleagues who are present.
- Workers lose wages for the unauthorized absence from work.
- Habitual absentees may be removed from services causing them great hardship.