There is no hard and fast rule regarding the steps involved in the process of selection. The number of selection steps depends upon many factors like the size of the organization, level of job, nature of job, philosophy of management, availability of time, number of applicants, etc. Some organizations follow a long chain of steps, eliminating unsuitable candidates at every step, finally left with the candidates who are to be employed on the other hand, some organizations select their employees just in one go through ‘Walk-in-interviews’.
Large organizations, usually consider the following steps in the employee selection process:
1. Application Blank
An application blank is a columnar Performa which constrains information like address, physical characteristics, educational qualifications, experience, necessary personal information, references, etc. On the basis of information collected from the application blank, should be simple and should not contain unnecessary questions.
2. Preliminary Interview
This interview is a brief interview in which candidates external personality and speech skills are adjudged. Some employers would require the candidates to undergo the remaining selection formalities if they find that candidates have a good personality and that they can communicate well.
3. Employment Tests
Candidates may have to undertake employment tests to establish their claim for the job. Different types of tests are administered according to the nature of jobs. Some important types of tests are:
- Achievement Tests: some establishments want that their employees must have certain level of achievement in some particular disciplines. They may, for example, decide that their supervisors must have proficiency in English language of graduation level and of numerical ability up to senior Secondary level. In such a case, they would administer achievement tests to ensure that only their achievement tests to ensure that only such candidates would be considered for interview who qualify their achievement tests in respect of English and Mathematics.
- Intelligence Tests: these tests provide a measure of intelligence quotient (IQ) of the candidate showing his mental ability, reasoning, numerical calculated through the following formula: IQ (intelligence quotient) = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) x 100. A person’s mental age is a measurement of his ability to think when compared with the average person’s ability at that age. Different intelligence tests are developed for different age-groups. Some organizations would consider those candidates only who possess a particular level of IQ.
- Aptitude Tests: these tests measure the candidates’ competence to learn a particular job. The employer wants to ensure that only such candidates are selected who have the ability and capacity to learn the jobs well for which they are being considered.
- Attitude Tests: the administration of these tests reveals the extent of candidates’ inclination in the jobs for which the selection procedure has been launched. The candidates who manager to get selected without the proper attitude in the job, prove maladjusted and do not contribute much for the organization.
- Performance Tests: these tests are designed to measure the level of proficiency and skill of the candidates in performing the Job. For example, candidates’ skill in typing, driving, etc.
- Personality Tests: these tests measure the temperament, value system maturity level, emotional balance, dominance-submission, extroversion-introversion, etc. of the candidates.
- Dexterity Tests: these tastes enable the staffing officer to know the ability of the candidates to use the different parts of body in a coordinated manner.
- Trade Tests: these tests measure the existing skills of the candidates. They measure the level of candidate’s knowledge in job he/ she has applied for Trade tests should not be confused with aptitude tests. The former measures the existing knowledge in the job; the latter measures the potential for learning the job in question.
It is not necessary for the staffing officer to give all the types of tests for selecting personnel for their organization. The nature of job suggests as to which tests should be administered for selecting the suitable candidates. Test should be administered by trained persons only. Tests administered should be validated ones. Validated tests are those which have been tried out earlier and found suitable.
4. Employment Interview
In an interview, the interviewer puts oral questions to the prospective employees in order to judge whether they are suitable for the job or not. There are no hard and fast rules of interviewing candidates interviews, in general, can be conducted in the following ways.
- Structured or Patterned Interview: in such an interview, different sets of questions, having the same pattern and with same different level, are framed in advance. Different candidates are asked different series of questions. Each series, having the same pattern and same difficulty level brings about objectivity in the interview.
- Unstructured or Non- directive Interview: in this interview, questions to be asked are not planned in advance. Questions pertaining to the job are asked and candidates are expected to respond freely to show their ability for the job.
- Stress Interview. This interview is held to note how thick skinned the candidate is. The candidates are asked awkward question and it is seen how they react to such questions and it is seen how they react to such questions. If they do not lose their balance of mind, they prove their worth as suitable candidates.
- Group Interview. In this interview, a number of candidates face the interview committee together. The candidates are asked to opine on an issue or they are asked to discuss a topic. When the candidates respond and give reasons and counter-reasons, their ability to communicate, presence of mind, expression, etc, is judged by the interviewers.
References are generally required to inquire about the conduct of these persons who have been found suitable in the interviews and tests. Reference can be collected from the previous employers, schools or colleges last attended or from any the reliable source. Before forming a balance opinion, it is necessary to inquire three to five persons about the conduct of the prospective employee.
6. Physical Examination
A person should be physically fit for the job for which he/she is being considered. Physical examination is arranged for candidates who have been placed in the selection list. A candidate suffering from serious diseases, like heart trouble or tuberculosis, is rejected. It is also seen that the candidate has a good state of health and that he possesses the general physical characteristics required for the job. The task of physical examination may be handed over to some reliable medical agency- public or private. In many cases, the organization employed a doctor who undertakes the work of medical examination.
7. Job Offer
The candidates who have been found medically fit are given the job offer, such an offer, generally, contains the date by which the candidates should join. It also contains other instructions about the agreement to take place between the candidates and the enterprise.
8. Employment Contract
The selected candidates have to enter into an agreement with the employers, like the job-emoluments, earning of increments, leave rules, work rules, etc.