There are some training methods followed for the development of skill and capabilities of the existing & new employees. So that, there can be improvement of the efficiency of the employees. Some selected skill development training methods are described below:
1. Transactional Analysis
This type of training method is helpful to eradicate or minimize the dysfunctional aspects of personality, developed from critical assumptions assimilated during childhood. The life script is a basic concept of transactional analysis. The programme for transactional analysis may vary from one day to five days. This method of training enables participants to develop interpersonal competencies to improve relationships with self and others for changing their behavior appropriately to optimize interrelationships. As far as possible, the trainer must operate from adult state and not be personally involved in transactions between participants.
The trainer must have expert knowledge of transactional analysis before interpretation of behavior. The trainer should interpret group behavior in terms of ego states of the participants. He should not be personally involved in the transactions between trainees. He should have specialized knowledge of the theory and practice relate to the transactional analysis.
Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. It is a useful technique for skills development. Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
In simulation training, the trainees act for situations in which they assume the personality and positions of some one else. The success of stimulation training depends upon other training innovations and relies on the continued patience of the enthusiastic participants having willingness to share insights and ideas with others. Simulation game increases interaction among the trainees from divergent socio-economic background. It provides an active, verbal and physical learning environment to increase the motivation of learners.
3. Incident Process
A series of sequential incidence can be used for skill learning. Participants are given the first incident and taken through three steps. First step is related to moving from symptoms to the underline issues. Second step is related to predictions as the effectiveness depends upon anticipatory proactive management. Third step is related actions based upon analysis and predictions. Then the second incident is issued. First participant can compare the predictions and action suggestions with actual happening. The participant goes through the sequence of the same three activities on incident to and show on. About three to four incident sequences seem to be optimal. The incidents can be in terms of skills of analysis, diagnosis, predictions, actions and contingency planning.
Role-play is defined as educational technique in which some problem, involving human interactions, real or imaginary is presented for spontaneous action. There is active participation of the trainees in role-play method of training. It permits training in the control of feelings and emotions.
Role-play method can be broadly classified into two categories, such as structured role-play &spontaneous role-play. During a role-play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills.
It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role-play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.
- Single Role-play: This is widely used form of role-play, which consists of two or three playing out roles in-front of a class. It is very help full to demonstrate the way of solving some problems or to show the complications related to the problems if not solved. It allows the entire class to examine in depth all the dynamics & complexities involved when individuals attempt to solve a problem. Some players may feel embarrassed to play role in front of others.
- Double Role-play: In this method all trainees are required to play roles. All the trainees are required to be kept in some groups for specific role-play. Each player required to play a specific role or act as an observer at the same time. It allows all the trainees to participate in the role-play. It causes no embarrassment to the players and reduce the problems related to ineffective role-play.
- Role Rotation: Under this method one person play a role. Other trainees are required to play the role one after the other. In this method participants feel less embarrassed & more willing. It demonstrates wide variety of styles in which different individuals try to solve the problem.
- Reverse Role Play: An excellent method for developing a salesperson’s skills at learning customer needs is through role playing. The reverse role playing consists of acting out the customer-salesperson relationship by the salespeople. One person plays the part of the customers, and the other plays the part of the salesperson. Next time around, they reverse the roles. Role playing enables salespeople to see various sales situations from the customers’ point of view. The skill necessary to quickly “size up” customers (learn about their needs) is rapidly sharpened through role playing. A particularly good time for you to try out this method is during slow periods when your salespeople are just “standing around” anyway.
- Hot Role: Hot role-play provokes the trainees for the changed expectations. There should be much interaction between the trainer and the trainees. For training of salesmen, there may be scenes with specific audience involvement, focus on customer service, effective communication, identification of real customers, satisfaction of their requirements, acting as united work force and facing challenges.
In organizations and groups people have assigned for formal roles: director, chief financial officer, manager of a department, the chairperson of a meeting, the person who takes the minutes and so on. These roles come with a formal job description.
In addition to the formal role people also occupy informal roles in the groups and organizations they are part of: the person who always asks critical questions, the one who is focused only on practical details, the person who will always volunteer first, the one who is always in crisis, the emotional one and so on. The Metaphor method helps participants of an existing group to discover what their informal role is and how their informal role influences the formal role they hold. Greater awareness of these informal roles is a help to both individuals and the whole group, leads to better collaboration and consequently aids in the task.
6. Interactive Demonstrations
An interactive session combines live product demonstrations by the trainer and hands-on practice for the trainee. These sessions are effective for successful training. Because, the participants are trained by five learning styles. They hear from the trainer, then look at the demonstrations, they may touch, feel and perform the same work by practice.
For this method of training audio and video equipments should be available with facility for demonstrations. This method is helpful for the trainees for the new product or service or new trainees for existing product and service. Under this type of training, the trainees can learn in detail and inform others about the product or service. If more than one product is to be trained in a row, time must be allowed for short breaks in between sessions.There is no maximum number, however 10 – 15 trainees may be ideal as each trainee will get individual attention .
Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There is also need for adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. A demonstration training session involves the trainer demonstrating the features of the product as the trainees observe.
Source: Scribd.com (Training and Development-MGU)