There are training methods related to the attitude of the participants of training programmes. The specific method should be selected according to the attitude of the participants in an organization. Some important attitudinal training methods are explained below:
1. Jigsaw Method
The Jigsaw is a method of attitudinal training followed when there is too much information for one person to read or absorb. It encourages reading or listening salient points included in the training programme. Jigsaw method is helpful to develop effective practice for communicating critical points to others. Jigsaw provides different perspectives on information. It can be particularly helpful to second language learners.
Jigsaw is a group structure that can be used across all content areas. Training starts with a home group. That group is responsible for learning the assigned portion of a task that is prescribed by the instructor. Then the instructor separates trainees into new groups – jigsaw groups – by assigning one member from each home group to a new group. If an activity begins with groups A, B, C, and D, the jigsaw groups have a member from A, B, C, and D. In the jigsaw groups, participants share information and complete some sort of project or product.The trainees conduct research in groups responsible for collecting information about a given area of that topic. Participants are to generate the questions to be asked after experiencing an “anchor” activity that is designed to bring forth the questions the instructor wants them to ask.
For reading purpose, portions of an article should be assigned to participants in the divided group. But for presentations the participants in smaller groups should select the sessions according to their interest to attend and take notes. Then they should summarize the main points and report back to the whole group.
There should be provision of note taking sheets with questions for the participants. In case of large groups, after reading same passage, the participants should discuss and decide on main points to be reported by selected reporter. All the participants should complete the assignments.
2. Fish Bowl Method
The objective of fish bowl exercise is to inculcate in the participants, the discipline of observing others and provide constructive feedback. This method is helpful to learn about one self, one’s behavior and personality as seen through the eyes of others and consequently to overcome weaknesses for improving strengths.
In this type of training, twenty-five participants seat in two concentric outer and inner circles. The inner circle is the target group in which members either discuss a pre-selected topic or move towards completion of a group task. After the discussion by the members of inner group, which may extend up to half an hour, the outer group is asked to comment on the content and more importantly, the dynamics and group process of the inner groups members. The trainer should select a topic for discussion that is either familiar to the participants or of interest to them. Then, participants can identify with the topic or task and generate a discussion.
In this method, the trainer shall act as a facilitator and guide the participants towards constructive results. At the outset, he will state the ground rules for the training and each member of the outer group must play the role. The trainer should precede the exercise with discourse on group dynamics and human behavior, principles of learning and individual actions in groups. This will provide the basis on which feedback is given.
T-groups are helpful for understanding the self and contributing towards organizational change & development through training in attitudinal changes in the participants and creating better teamwork. T-groups can be classified into following categories. A T-group may consist of eight to fifteen persons. After setting forth the objectives, the trainer remains in the background creating a vacuum, which impels participants to develop structure and meaning.
- Stranger groups: In this group participants have no prior knowledge of one another. But members can express and involve themselves without fear or retaliation. However, the commencement of the training is difficult as all are strangers in the group.
- Family Groups: In this group participants belong to the same department or hierarchical level and have prior knowledge of each other. But the members may shy away from giving feedback, may dilute it or may not disclose themselves in fear of its being used against them.
4. Business Game
Business game is a training technique in which participants consider sequence of problems and take decisions. It is simulation which consisting of sequential decision-making exercise structured around a hypothetical model of the operations of an organization. As it is only a simulation there is no real loss to the organization in case participants make mistakes. Among different training methods, business game is increasingly used in management development programs for effectiveness of learning.
Business game method is helpful to reduce conflicts among the participants. These games can be classified on the basis of coverage, competitive element & processing results. According to coverage there may be total enterprise gain and functional gain. There are interactive games and non-interactive games. By processing of results there can be computer game or non-computer game.
Business games are relatively new in comparison to other methods. There are different types of business games according to the coverage competitive element and processing of results. On the basis of coverage, there are Total Enterprise games and Functional Games. On the basis of competitive element there may be Interacting Game and Non-interacting Game. According to processing of results, there are Computer Game and Non-computer Game.
These games are helpful to demonstrate some aspects of organization activities it helps in changing the attitudes. It provides experience in the application statistical and analytical methods. Games are quiet absorbing, provoking interest in participants to have more effective learning. There is a higher cost of this method if computers are required. Some games may be to simplified models of reality to be effective for learning of actual business situation. Many games involve only quantitative variables ignoring human elements of organization.
The trainer has to be active and fully involved to produce desired results from this method. He should have complete understanding of the game and clearly explain it to participants. He should always be alert to handle new situations while running the training programme. He should have complete situation under his control.
The game must be compared with real life situations, wherever possible. So that business game is taken as simulation of the real life situations for learning. Business games are very helpful to emphasize the importance of long range planning. This method can be used for effective management development programme.
The procedure followed for successful business game should include the following steps.
- There should be previous briefing for the participants
- Enough time should be available for first run of the game.
- The trainer should give first feedback quickly to trainees for interest
- There should be publication of information on results achieved
- Repeated rounds of game should be sequential and logical
- The trainer should announce the final result at the end of game