The Reasons for Mergers and Amalgamations

A number of mergers, take-overs and consolidation have take place in the recent times. The major reason for mergers and amalgamations, is the liberalization of economy. Liberalization is forcing companies to enter new business, exit from others, and consolidate in some simultaneously. The following are the other important reasons for mergers or amalgamations:

  1. Economies of scale: An amalgamation company will have more reasons at its command that the individual companies. This will help in increasing the scale of operations and the economies of large scale will be available. These economies will occur because of more intensive utilization of production facilities, distribution network, research and development facilities, etc. these economies will be available in horizontal mergers were scope of more intensive use of resources is greater.
  2. Operating economies: A number of operating economies will be availed with the merger of two or more companies. Duplicating facilities in accounting, purchasing, marketing, etc. will be eliminated. Operating inefficiencies of small concerns will be controlled by the superior management emerging from the amalgamation. The amalgamated company will be in a better position to operate than the amalgamating companies individually.
  3. Synergy: Synergy refers to the greater combined value of merged firms than the sum of the values of individual units. It is something like one plus one more than two. It results from benefits other than those related to economies of scale. Operating economies are one of the various synergy benefits of merger or consolidation. The other instances which may result into synergy benefits includes, strong R&D facilities of one firm merged with better organized facilities of another unit, enhanced managerial capabilities, the substantial financial resources of one being combined with profitable investment opportunities of the other.
  4. Growth: A company may not grow rapidly throw internal expansion. Merger or amalgamation enables satisfactory and balanced growth of a company. It can cross many stages of growth at one time through amalgamation. Growth through merger or amalgamation is also cheaper and less risky. A number of costs and risk of expansion and taking on a new product line are avoided by the acquaint of a going concern. By acquiring other companies a desired level of growth can be maintained by an enterprise.
  5. Diversification: Two or more companies operating in different lines can diversify their activities through amalgamation. Since different companies are already dealing in their respective lines there will be less risk in diversification. When a company tries to enter new lines of activities then it may face a number of problems in production, marketing etc. where some concerns are already operating in different lines, they must have crossed many obstacles and difficulties. Amalgamation will bring together the experience of different persons in various activities. So amalgamation will be the best way of diversification.
  6. Utilization of tax shield: When a company with accumulate losses merges with a profit making company it is able to utilize tax shields. A company having losses will not be able to setoff losses against future profits, because it is not a profit making unit. On the other hand if it merges with a concern making profits then the accumulated losses of one unit will be set off against the future profits of the other unit. In this way the merger or amalgamation will enable the concern to avail tax benefits.
  7. Increase in value: one of the main reasons of merger or amalgamation is the increaser in value of the merged company. The value of merged company is greater than the sum of the independent values of the merged company.
  8. Elimination of competition: the merger or amalgamation of two or more companies will eliminate competition among them. The companies will be able to save their advertisement expenses thus enabling them to reduce their prices. The consumers will also benefit in the form of cheap or goods being available to them.
  9. Better financial planning: the merged companies will be able to plan their resources in a better way. The collective finances of merged companies will be more and their utilization may be better than in the separate concerns. It may happen that one of the merging companies has short gestation period while the other has the longer gestation period. The profits of the company with short gestation period will be utilized to finance the other company. When the company with the longer gestation period starts eating profits then it will improve financial position as a whole.
  10. Economic necessity: It may force the merger of some units. If there are two sick units, government may force their merger to improve their financial position and over all working .a sick unit may be required to merge with the healthy unit to insure better utilization of resources, improve and better management. Rehabilitation of sick units is asocial necessity because their closure may result in UN employment etc.

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