Objectives of Portfolio Management:-
The objective of portfolio management is to invest in securities is securities in such a way that one maximizes one’s returns and minimizes risks in order to achieve one’s investment objective.
A good portfolio should have multiple objectives and achieve a sound balance among them. Any one objective should not be given undue importance at the cost of others. Presented below are some important objectives of portfolio management.
1. Stable Current Return: -
Once investment safety is guaranteed, the portfolio should yield a steady current income. The current returns should at least match the opportunity cost of the funds of the investor. What we are referring to here current income by way of interest of dividends, not capital gains.
2. Marketability: -
A good portfolio consists of investment, which can be marketed without difficulty. If there are too many unlisted or inactive shares in your portfolio, you will face problems in encasing them, and switching from one investment to another. It is desirable to invest in companies listed on major stock exchanges, which are actively traded.
3. Tax Planning: -
Since taxation is an important variable in total planning, a good portfolio should enable its owner to enjoy a favorable tax shelter. The portfolio should be developed considering not only income tax, but capital gains tax, and gift tax, as well. What a good portfolio aims at is tax planning, not tax evasion or tax avoidance.
4. Appreciation in the value of capital:
A good portfolio should appreciate in value in order to protect the investor from any erosion in purchasing power due to inflation. In other words, a balanced portfolio must consist of certain investments, which tend to appreciate in real value after adjusting for inflation.
The portfolio should ensure that there are enough funds available at short notice to take care of the investor’s liquidity requirements. It is desirable to keep a line of credit from a bank for use in case it becomes necessary to participate in right issues, or for any other personal needs.
6. Safety of the investment:
The first important objective of a portfolio, no matter who owns it, is to ensure that the investment is absolutely safe. Other considerations like income, growth, etc., only come into the picture after the safety of your investment is ensured.
Investment safety or minimization of risks is one of the important objectives of portfolio management. There are many types of risks, which are associated with investment in equity stocks, including super stocks. Bear in mind that there is no such thing as a zero risk investment. More over, relatively low risk investment give correspondingly lower returns. You can try and minimize the overall risk or bring it to an acceptable level by developing a balanced and efficient portfolio. A good portfolio of growth stocks satisfies the entire objectives outline above.
Scope of Portfolio Management:-
Portfolio management is a continuous process. It is a dynamic activity. The following are the basic operations of a portfolio management.
a) Monitoring the performance of portfolio by incorporating the latest market conditions.
b) Identification of the investor’s objective, constraints and preferences.
c) Making an evaluation of portfolio income (comparison with targets and achievement).
d) Making revision in the portfolio.
e) Implementation of the strategies in tune with investment objectives.