Selection activities usually follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final employment decision. It is very important for human resources management because this process help human resources personnel to identify the candidate with the necessary qualification to perform successfully in the job. Selection process has several steps which are as follows:
- Initial Screening: To further proceed with recruiting efforts, human resources management has to initiate a preliminary review of the potentially acceptable candidates. There are two steps for this screening procedure. (1)The screening of inquiries and (2)The provision of screening interviews. Once the screening process is successful, an organization will have a pool of potential candidate. On the basis of job description and job specification, many of the candidates have been removed from the potential list. These occur due to irrelevant experience or inadequate qualification and education. The provision of screening interviews are also important for human resources management of the organization because it gives a base to the candidates to make their mind for the particular job that whether they wish to do the job or not. Screening interview gives brief information about job. The sharing of job description information with the individual can frequently encourage the unqualified or marginally qualified candidate to withdraw voluntarily. Another important aspect is to identify salary range. It also gives a clear view of the salary range which human resources management has decided for the particular job.
- Employment testing: Another step in selection process after initial screening of the candidate is employment testing. In this step potential candidate may have to give some test related to the requirement of the job. Through these test human resources management would be able to measure intelligence, aptitude, ability and interest of the candidate for the particular job. These tests can be verbal or written. And it helps human resources management to recognize characteristics of candidate’s personality. These tests have been found to be most valuable tool for selection process.
- Selection Interview: Applicants who are found potential after initial screening, application form and tests which are required by the organization are given selection interview. This interview is being taken by anyone of them: personnel department interviewers, executives within the organization, a potential supervisor, potential colleagues, or some combination of these. The selection interview usually highlight or focus on the areas where are not mentioned in application form or in tests. These areas are motivation of candidate, their ability to work under pressure and their suitability which fits them into organization. These information are job related and the questions which are asked and topic which are covered must be somewhere reflect necessity of the position required.
- Background and reference checks: Once selection interview is being over, the next step is background check of the candidate who appears to offer potential as employees. These may includes contacting candidate’s former employers or by contact his/her personnel references to know candidate’s behavior, performance at workplace and the information about candidate’s educational qualification. Background check of the candidate may done by personnel administrator, department head or by senior executive. Sometimes personnel administrator may approach more than one or two persons for background check or reference check. By doing this, the administrator can eliminate the possibility of accepting an individual based on the employee’s current employer’s glowing recommendation when the motivation for such a positive recommendation we sot get rid of the employee.
- Physical examination: Next step is having physical examination of the candidate who so ever is found positive in background check. In many of jobs it is being used as screening device in the selection process. Intention behind physical examination is to screen out those candidates who are unable to comply physically with the requirements of the job and the organization. Majority of physical examination are currently required by the organization to meet minimum standard for the organization’s group life and medical insurance programs and to provide base data in case of future worker’s compensation claims.
- Decision to hire/ Final employment decision: Candidates who have successfully pass employment test, selection interview, background check and physical examination are being consider as eligible candidates of the offer of employment in the organization. In many organization offer letter for the employment is being given by administrator of the organization, in some organization it is given by the department head, where the position is required. Every organization has different policy for the offer of employment.
Cost of Selection
Human resources management always focuses on the cost of selection of the candidate. To select a person for a particular position, human resources management have to keep it in their budget. Cost of selection is being considered for those who doesn’t contribute anything to the organization. There are some of these kind of people. They don’t work so efficiently and not only efficiently but they don’t even wish to work properly. They are mainly concerned for their salary not for the effort made by them toward organization. They think about how much organizational benefit they can get. They are not result oriented. Cost of selection is based upon employees’ survival in the organization. If an employee will work in the organization for long time than cost of selection of that employee is adjusted. Because during every selection process, human resources management have to give there valuable time, they have to spent time for the search of good candidate.
Factor Affecting Selection Process
Selection process is also affected by certain factors these factors can be good for selection of the candidate and can be bad for the selection of the candidate. Human resource management has to go through theses factors, so if they need any changes they can make it alt a time. There are following factors which are affecting selection process:
- Relevant Experience: Human Resource management has to check the experience which they are looking for from the candidate for the particular position. Relevant experience for example, there is an organization and they need to hire for there marketing department. Organization needs a candidate with five years of experience in marketing i.e. direct marketing. They post and ad in the news paper and other modes like their own website and other job posting website that they need the candidate with at least five years of experience in direct marketing. They receive some applications and than they came to know that there are same applicants who have five years of experience but not all in direct market. In such situation they have to take out application of those candidate who don’t how relevant experience, Because they are looking for the relevant experience for the position not the total experience.
- Industry type: Industry type is one of the factors which are influencing selection process. Human resources management faces problem while they have to identify that the candidate has correct industry type. Sometimes they are looking for the candidate from particular industry. If an organization is pharmaceutical industry not from banking industry or marketing industry. Here human resources management has to consider the candidate where it was working most have same industry type not other kind. Relevant industry is one factor which is influencing selection process. Human resources management has to consider this factor to get right candidate for right position.
- Relocation: Sometime organization didn’t find the suitable candidate from the area where they are located. In such situation they have to hire someone from different area. Sometime during selection process they ask candidates that whether they are ready to relocate themselves or not. And candidates deny the offer because they don’t want to relocate themselves from the current area. In such situation it becomes hurdle for human resources management department. Relocation is also a factor which influences selection process. Sometime human resource management person has to offer some extra benefits to the person whom they want to relocate. They may have to offer house rent, food compensation and something more. Sometime candidate get ready to relocate themselves because they find good money or more salary than what they are currently getting. They may get ready to relocate because they get higher position than what they are working currently or for future prospective. Human resource management has to ready to negotiate with the candidate if they want them to relocate.
- Made of education: Mode of education is also factors which influence selection process. While scrutinizing the applications of the applicants, it is hard to know what mode of education they have done for the qualification which they are applying for these days many students are going for online education, where they don’t get any direct class. They just home to study online. They have to study by themselves and if they any problem with the books and reading material, they have to discuss it online or through email. In such condition they don’t get any direct physical contact with teacher or professors. And they don’t get any practical knowledge about what they are studying. For example there is an organization that is looking for the candidate, who should have educational qualification in marketing and have practical knowledge in marketing but the candidate have gone through online education. They have theoretical knowledge about marketing but they don’t have Practical experience. And human resources management has come to know in the time of interview. In such situation it is hard to select such candidates.
- Salary Budget: Salary budget is one of the major factor which influence selection process. There is a fix salary budget for any position. Human resources management can’t go beyond the budget which they have planned for the position. In many situation human resources management face the problem when candidate demands for the salary which doesn’t fin in the budget of required position. Than they have to negotiate with the candidate. Sometime candidate didn’t agree with the offer and refuse the offer. It is hard to convince candidate of they are demanding more than salary budget. To convince those human resources management offers certain benefits other than salary.