Job analysis is understood as the analysis of job-related activities in the organization. Job analysis collects and analyses the information related to jobs and various aspects of jobs. It is performed upon ongoing jobs only which contain job contents and the skill requirement to perform the specific task. It involves a formal study of jobs which is essential in determining the duties and the nature of the jobs in the organization.
Job analysis is a very important function of HR, which is related with many activities of Human Resource Management (HRM). Theoretically speaking, job design, job analysis, job descriptions and job specifications and are all around “work” to be, but from the company’s current situation, the design work than not to change, the only way is indeed feasible that using job analysis to evaluate the value of work position, even reasonable analysis can achieve job enrichment and purposes of diversification.
Job analysis consists of two parts: the job description and statement of work. Through analysis of the work input, conversion work, work output, work related characteristics, job resources, work environment background, and result the formation of job analysis – job specification (also known as the statement of work). The work of identifying information included job specifications, job summary, job duties and responsibilities, and information of qualification criteria, which facilitate the use of functions for other human resource management.
Job analysis is the basis for human resources management, the quality of its analysis for module of other human resource management has a significant influence. Job analysis is also defined as a system process to identify the skills to complete the work, responsibility and knowledge, which is an important and universal human resource management technique. Almost all the human resources plans or programs need to get certain types of information through the work analysis; it affects management of human resources in the following areas:
- Job Descriptions – Job descriptions define what a job is by identifying its content, requirements and context. Because job descriptions provide a written summary of the duties and responsibilities of the job, they help managers and current and prospective employees understand what the job is and how it is to be performed.
- Job Specification – Job specifications focus on the personal characteristics and qualifications that an employee must possess to perform the job successfully.
- Job Design – Job design identifies what work must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will perform it. Job analysis information is invaluable in determining which tasks should be grouped together to form a job and structuring jobs so that employee satisfaction and performance can be enhanced.
- Organisational Structure and Design – Job analysis by clarifying job requirements and the inter relationships among jobs means content and tasks duties and responsibilities at all levels can be specified, thus promoting efficiency by minimizing overlap or duplication. Job analysis information is invaluable in determining which tasks should be grouped together to form a job and structuring jobs so that employee satisfaction and performance can be enhanced.
- HR Planning – HR or personnel planning involves “getting the right number of qualified people into the right job at the right time“. Job analysis information is essential for this if the number and types of employees to be recruited or exited from the organisation are to be accurately determined.
- Recruitment – Job analysis information helps the HR Manager attract better qualified candidates by identifying who to recruit and how and where to recruit them by establishing the job requirements that must meet. In addition, job analysis permits the HR Manager to provide realistic job previews by highlighting irrelevant and or distorted job information.
- Selection – Job analysis information identifies what the job is by defining what duties and responsibilities must be performed. This facilitates the development of job related selection techniques, helps ensure that EEO requirements are met, and increases the likelihood of a proper matching of an applicant with a job. Finally, job analysis information can be used to validate the selection techniques.
- Orientation – Effective job orientation requires a clear understanding of the work to be performed. A new employee cannot be properly taught how to do a job if job duties and responsibilities are not clearly defined.
- Performance Appraisal – Job analysis information is essential to the establishment of performance standards. Through job analysis a thorough understanding of what the employee is supposed to do is obtained. Without this, acceptable levels of performance cannot be determined or an accurate measure of actual performance obtained.
- Training and Development – Job analysis information is used to design and implement training and development programs. The job specification defines the knowledge, skills and abilities required for successful job performance. This allows the HR Manager to establish training and development objectives, design programs and determine whether or not a current or potential employee requires training.
- Career planning and Development – HR Managers are better placed to offer career guidance when they have a good understanding of the types of jobs existing in an organisation. Similarly, by identifying jobs and job requirements, employees become aware of their career options and what constitutes a realistic career objective for them in the organisation.
- Compensation and Benefits – The job description is the foundation of job evaluation. It summarises the nature and requirements of the job and permits its evaluation relative to other jobs. Once the relative worth of a job has been determined an equitable level of compensation and benefits can be assigned.
- Health & Safety – Job analysis information helps create a healthy and safe working environment. Jobs with hazardous conditions methods or procedures can be identified and redesigned to eliminate or reduce exposure to health and safety hazards.
- Industrial Relations – Misunderstandings and disagreement among managers, employees and unions over job content is a major source of grievance and demarcation disputes. Job analysis information can help avoid such disputes by providing a clear description of tasks and responsibilities and identifying the formal qualifications, skills, abilities, knowledge and experience required to successfully perform the work.