Definitions of Human Resource Management (HRM)
Human Resource Management (HRM) is concerned with the “people” dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high level of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the Organisation are essential to achieving organizational objectives. This is true regardless of type of Organisation Government, business, education, health, recreation or social action. Those organisation that are able to acquire, develop, stimulate and keep outstanding workers will be both effective, able to achieve their goals, and efficient (expanding the least amount of resources necessary). Those organisation that are inefficient and ineffective risk the hazards of stagnating or going out of business.
- According to Thomas G. Spates, Human Resource Management (HRM) is a code of the ways of organizing and treating individuals at work so that they will get the greatest possible realization of their intrinsic abilities, thus attaining maximum efficiency for themselves and their group and thereby giving to the enterprise of which they are a part its determining competitive advantage and its optimum results.
- George Terry has succinctly stated that Human Resource Management (HRM) is concerned with the obtaining and maintaining of a satisfied work force. He further clarified that HRM is concerned with maximizing the effectiveness of the work force through application of sound and proved personnel policies and practices.
- According to Dale Yoder, Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function or activity aiding and directing working men and women in maximizing their contributions and satisfactions in employment. It helps ‘workers’ including all those who work, from unskilled common laborers to corporation presidents or public administrators, – combine their efforts with those of others in providing the administrators – combine their efforts with those of others in providing the services and products we all want.
- In the words of Flippo, Human Resource Management (HRM) is the planning organizing, directing, and controlling of the procurement, developments, compensation, integration and maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organisational and societal objective are accomplished.
According to process system view, human resources management is the systematic planning, development, and control of a network of interrelated process affecting and involving all members of organisation. These process include: • Human resources planning • Job and work design • Staffing • Training and development • Performance appraisal and review • Compensation and reward • Employee protection and representation • Organisation improvement. To effectively manage these process, human resources systems are planned, developed and implemented through the combined efforts of all managers and human resources specialists – and frequently all employees – in an organisation. Overall, the systems are intended to achieve organisation-wide goals and contribute to organisational effectiveness and productivity. From the foregoing definitions it may be concluded that there is no standard definition of the term ‘HRM’, some authorities have defined it in terms of its functions, some others in terms of its objects and some in terms of human relationships.
Thus, human resource management refers to set of programmes, functions and activities designed and carried out in order to maximize both employees as well as organizational effectiveness.
Objectives of Human Resource Management (HRM)
Since Human Resource Management (HRM) is an integral part of management, its main objective is identical with that of latter, survival and growth to help the organisation to achieve its objectives, HRM contributes by assuring a rich, and continuous supply of human resources. Further, to make organisation effective and efficient, HRM aims at coordinated efforts of the competent managers and workers towards the ultimate goal. The general objective of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to contribute towards realization of firms goals. The specific objectives of Human Resource Management (HRM) include the following:
- Efficient utilization of people’s skills and abilities HRM aims at utilizing the people’s skill and abilities, in order to achieve organizational as well as individual goals. Efficient utilization of manpower is beneficial not only to the Organisation but also to the employees and consumers Human resource manager should ensure that necessary action is taken to make the fullest utilisation of manpower.
- Provision of trained and motivated employees The human resource manager provides to the Organisation well trained and motivated employees, which is the most valuable asset of an Organisation. The human resource manager, for achieving this objective, creates an environment which is conducive to the growth of well-trained and well motivated employees. The effectiveness of human resource manager is judged on the basis of right type of person, at right place, at right time for an Organisation.
- HRM aims at providing facilities for employees thereby ensures job satisfaction of the individuals. This objective focuses on employees needs rather than organizational needs.
- HRM aims at communicating its policies to all concerned in their own language. Effective communication helps in building organisation image among its employees, Government and public in general. Through effective communication, policies, goals of organisation can be achieved.
- HRM develops and maintain qualify of worklife that makes work environment more meaningful to the employees life. It is a programme of building an ideal work environment to promote maximum employees satisfaction consistent with maximum organisation growth. The premise of quality of work life is having a work environment where an employee’s activities become more important. This means implementing procedures that make work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. These policies includes autonomy, recognition, belongingness progress and development and external rewards. Autonomy deals with the amount of freedom that employees can exercise in their job. Recognition involves being value by others in the company. An individual contribution to the organisation is noticed and appreciated. Belongingness refers to being part of organisation. Progress and developments refers to internal rewards available from Organisation; Challenge and accomplishment. Finally external rewards which are usually in the form of salary and benefits, also includes promotion, rank and status. Taken together,these components provides for quality of work life for the individuals. If the quality of work life is lacking, then workers productivity may suffer.
Scope of Human Resource Management
Following is the scope of human resource management explained by experts in this area.
1. Human Resources Planning
Human Resources Planning is the process of assessing the organisation’s human resources needs in light of organizational goals and making plans to ensure that a competent, stable work force is employed. The human resource planning process includes an analysis of skill levels among employees and in the external labor market, of current and expected job openings, of plans for expanding or reducing staff throughout the organisation, and of the external legal environment. The planning process, then, is, closely related to the staffing process and depends also on the overall strategic plans of the organisation. The systems designed to control and direct the human resources planning process include such devices and computerized records of employees’ skills and qualification, forecasts of the number of employees with certain skills who are likely to leave over the next year, analysis of the extent to which affirmative action goals have been met; and confidential organization charts showing possible candidates for promotion to various executive positions.
2. Job and Work Design
Job and work design specifies the tasks to be performed by individuals and groups within the Organisation, and establishes the rules, schedules and working conditions under which people perform those tasks. Through careful design, or circumstance, or both, events converge to create jobs to which people are assigned and the conditions surrounding these jobs. Some of the systems used to help manage the process of job design include techniques such as time and motion study and work simplification, which aims at making jobs easy to learn and workers more efficient. Other job design systems, such as job enrichment, involve techniques to restructure jobs to make them more interesting and challenging. Periodic discussions within a work team about the allocation of tasks can be considered a job design system.
3. Job Analysis
Job analysis, an outgrowth of job design, is the process of investigating the tasks and behavior associated with a particular job. Various systems used in job analysis include observations of workers as they perform their jobs, interviews and questionnaires. Typically the information obtained from job analysis is used to write job descriptions and to establish what is required of the person who will perform each job. In turn, job descriptions are useful in the staffing process, especially in recruiting, hiring, and training new employees.
An organisation needs people for its present and future vacancies. Recruitment is the process of exploring the sources of suitable People and taking effective measure for obtaining them. It is designed to attract as many candidates as possible from inside and outside the organisation so than an objective selection of the most talented persons can be done.
5. Selections and Placement
Having identified the candidates eligible for the posts, the management should proceed with the selection of right candidates and their placement. Selection is the process of testing the ability, skill and aptitude of the candidates. It is done to find out those candidates who are best suited to the specific jobs. Placement is the process of assigning a job to an accepted individual for which he is best suited. Selection and placement may or may not occur simultaneously. When candidate are chosen for specific jobs, selection and placement go together, But when a large number of candidates are selected for avoid of jobs, placement is generally done only by importing training.
After an employee has been selected and placed at a specific job, the next logical step is to introduce him to the culture of the organisation, through socialization. It is a process of transmitting the key values, norms, policies and objectives of the company to the employees with a view to shaping their attitudes, thought and behavior and assimilating them into the dominant culture of the company. It enable a new employee to understand the organisation better and makes him or her feel at home at his work environment. This is extremely important to his motivation and performance in the organisation.
7. Training and Development Process
Although the two terms are generally put together, they are not identical in meaning. Training is a learning process that seeks to bring about a permanent improvement in the ability and behavior of employees by enabling them to learn new skill, knowledge, attitude and behavior so that they can become better performers. It is mostly intended for operating employees. Development is a much broaden concept than training. It is basically an educational process which is directed to increase the conceptual ability of employees to understand and apply knowledge in terms of cause and effect relationship, in the organizational situation. It is generally intended for managerial, people training and development programmes are essential for enhancing the quality and potential of human resources for improving the standards of performance and productivity of an Organisation.